Ultimately, it needs to be trialled in athletes. But that would never happen. As a substance with no therapeutic use, there is no need to ever test it to determine its effect on athletic performance. You don't need the same standard of evidence for drugs like EPO (synthetic replicas of hormones), where the primary biological effect studied in clinical trials of non-athletes is clearly and blatantly performance enhancing. With something like AOD9604, the waters are much murkier with respect to athletic performance.

Figure 1A shows the chronic effect of saline, AOD9604, and hGH in lean C57BL/6J mice on body weight and food intake. The hGH potently increased the body weight gain of these mice, reaching significance by d 8. There was an increase in body weight after AOD9604 only on the last day of treatment. In contrast, ob/ob mice (Fig. 1B) showed a profound decrease in body weight after both AOD9604 and hGH. Importantly, these effects were not attributed to changes in food intake in either the lean or the ob/ob mice (Fig. 1, C and D, respectively).
In this paper, we investigated whether the changes observed inβ 3-AR RNA expression in vitro also occur in an in vivo model. The in vivo model used was the obese (ob/ob) mouse model of obesity that has repressed levels of β3-ARs, which in part contributes to reduced lipolytic sensitivity (12). Lean C57BL/6J mice were used as a control. Following a 14-d chronic administration with AOD9604 or hGH, adipose tissue weights were measured, and β3-AR mRNA expression was determined. The decrease in weight of adipose tissue depots in the ob/ob mice was associated with increasedβ 3-AR expression. Further studies inβ 3-AR knock-out (β3-KO) mice showed that the presence of the β3-AR is necessary to mediate the chronic effectiveness of hGH and AOD9604 with regards to weight loss and fat mass reduction. However, an acute dose of AOD9604 was capable of increasing energy expenditure inβ 3-KO mice, although the response was less than that seen in the wild-type control mice.
Background: The human growth hormone (hGH) has fat loss properties making it a potential candidate to treat obesity. AOD 9604 is a peptide fragment of the C-terminus of hGH (Tyr-hGH177-191), which harbors the fat reducing activity of hGH, without its negative effects. In this paper the safety data of AOD 9604 obtained in clinical trials are summarized.
In vitro studies by Metabolic Collaborators showed that AOD9604 enhances the differentiation of adipose mesenchymal stem cells into bone, promotes proteoglycan and collagen production in isolated bovine chondrocytes, and promotes differentiation of myoblasts into C2C12 cells. These effects induced by AOD9604 are similar to those required for the repair of bone, cartilage, and muscle, all of which are affected in OA. To the best of our knowledge, no study has compared the effects of GH and HA intra-articular injections on OA. A previous study showed the effects of intra-articular GH injection on articulophyseal cartilage regeneration in the knees of rabbits [9]. Our study showed that the groups that received AOD9604 or HA injection had better outcomes in terms of morphological and histolopathological findings, as well as a lowered duration of lameness than the group that received saline injections, although there are no significant differences between the two groups. In addition, our study revealed that the groups that received combined injections of AOD9604 and HA showed better outcomes than the groups that received AOD9604 or HA alone. The apparently synergistic effect of combined injections is thought to indicate that intra-articular injection of HA may have a chondrocyte-protective role, and the AOD9604 could help recapitulate the developmental cascades which regrows a segment of the articular cartilage in a joint. Our results are consistent with those of a previous study [8] that combined the injection of HA with recombinant human GH and found that the combination is more effective than HA injection alone.

PCR amplification was carried out on cDNA equivalent to 100 ng of starting mRNA using the following murine oligonucleotide primers (expected and observed PCR product size): β3-AR forward, 5′-TCTAGTTCCCAGCGGAGTTTTCATCG-3′; (234 bp) reverse, 5′-CGCGCACCTTCATAGCCATCAAACC-3′; β-actin forward, 5′-ATCCTGCGTCTGGACCTGGCTG-3′; (559 bp) reverse, 5′-CCTGCTTGCTGATCCACATCTGCTG-3′.
These findings suggest that the acute effects of AOD9604 are quite different from the chronic effects. Enhancedβ 3-AR expression appears to play a major role in the chronic effectiveness of the compound in terms of fat metabolism and weight loss. The acute effects observed in this study confirm that the β3-AR is not the sole mediator of this action. The increase in β3-AR expression in response to hGH and AOD9604 would permit enhanced lipolytic sensitivity. Identification of the components of the intracellular pathway(s) and effector(s) activated by AOD9604 are currently being investigated. The results presented in this paper suggest that the effectiveness of AOD9604 and hGH may partly rely on their ability to increase levels of β3-AR RNA expression in models of obesity in which the numbers of the lipolytic receptor are low. These unique properties may give AOD9604 an advantage over other lipolytic agonists such as adrenergic agents and hGH, which exhibit undesirable side effects when administered chronically (22).

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The objective of the 3rd study (METAOD003) was to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacodynamics of single oral doses of AOD9604 in healthy, clinically obese males. 17 subjects (n = 15 completed the study), age 35 to 54 years, with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 (range 35 to 56 kg/m2) subsequently received 3 increasing doses of AOD9604 (9, 27 and 54 mg) or placebo. Each dose administration was separated by a 2-week wash-out period.
Experimental animals were anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of xylazine (Rompun®; Bayer Co., Seoul, Korea) at a dose of 1.9 mg/kg and ketamine (Ketar®; Yuhan Co., Seoul, Korea) at a dose of 46 mg/kg. The right knee joints of all rabbits were shaved and sterilized. Then, 2 mg of collagenase type II from Clostridium histolyticum (Sigma Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) was prepared for intra-articular injection. Collagenase was dissolved in a sterile phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and filtered with a 0.22-μm membrane. The solution was slowly injected into the right knee joint using ultrasound guidance. The same injection was repeated 3 days after the first injection, as previously reported (Figure 1) [8].
Background: The human growth hormone (hGH) has properties making it a potential candidate to treat obesity, however safety issues limit its long-term use. AOD9604 is a peptide fragment of the C-terminus of hGH (Tyr-hGH177-191), which harbors the fat reducing activity of hGH, without its negative effects. In this paper the safety data of AOD9604 obtained in clinical trials are summarized.
Acromegaly is characterized by an excessive amount of articular cartilage in joints caused by excess GH secretion [25]. The tremendously thick articular cartilage in acromegaly can be explained by the local production of IGF-1 in cartilage cells through GH receptors [9,18]. Long-term treatment with GH might induce hypertrophy of the cartilage and changes in the joint geometry because of altered subchondral bone structures. Long-term treatment with GH by local injections may also be associated with various risks, including glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, diabetes, cancer, edema, and hypertension [26–29]. AOD9604 is not an agonist with a high affinity to the GH receptor and does not stimulate the production of IGF-1. Therefore, AOD9604 may be safer than human recombinant GH for the long-term treatment of OA.
Experimental animals were anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of xylazine (Rompun®; Bayer Co., Seoul, Korea) at a dose of 1.9 mg/kg and ketamine (Ketar®; Yuhan Co., Seoul, Korea) at a dose of 46 mg/kg. The right knee joints of all rabbits were shaved and sterilized. Then, 2 mg of collagenase type II from Clostridium histolyticum (Sigma Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) was prepared for intra-articular injection. Collagenase was dissolved in a sterile phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and filtered with a 0.22-μm membrane. The solution was slowly injected into the right knee joint using ultrasound guidance. The same injection was repeated 3 days after the first injection, as previously reported (Figure 1) [8].
Endurobol (GW501516): Classified under a group of drugs called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, Endurobol’s potential abuse in athletes is based on animal studies that showed it could improve endurance, increase fat metabolism, improve glucose uptake in skeletal muscle tissue, and increase in muscle gene expression. At the moment, there is insufficient evidence for these sport performance outcomes in humans. Human side-effects are currently also unknown. Endurobol is prohibited both in and out of competition under WADA’s Prohibited List.

Thymosin beta-4 (TB-4): A naturally occurring protein found in blood platelets, TB-4 plays a role in the repair and regeneration of injured tissues in the human body. It was first detected in the thymus, a gland that produces white blood cells. While it’s recently been used to treat horses and implicated in horse doping, it’s also found its way into bodybuilding circles. While there is no published evidence that TB-4 produces any benefit to athletes, it was added to the WADA banned substances list in 2011.
We found that osteoarthritic rabbits administered intra-articular AOD9604 injections had better outcomes with lesser morphological and histolopathological damage than was observed in the control group. AOD9604 is a disulphide-constrained peptide that comprises 15 amino acids from the C-terminal sequence of human GH and an additional N-terminal tyrosine residue: YLRIVQCRSVEGSCGF [15]. The exact mechanism underlying the action of GH in OA is unknown. Previous studies have shown that GH can act directly on the growth plate by stimulating local production of IGF-1 and by increasing cartilage metabolism [9,16] and chondrocyte proliferation [17]. Although AOD9604 is not a high-affinity agonist of the GH receptor and does not stimulate the proliferation of cells transfected with the GH receptor, it retains some functions of GH [11]. Initially, AOD9604 was investigated for the treatment of obesity in humans. In rodent models of obesity, AOD9604 showed a similar effect of weight loss as that observed with GH [11]. However, AOD9604 does not induce diabetes and does not stimulate the production of IGF-1 [10].
This was why everyone inside the club, and inside the industry, never had too great a concern, the concern was more the public ridicule and the potential revenue damage in the AFL coffers. How they possibly could get the jacks,the customs,the gov't,theASADA,andThe feds off their back! Otherwise, Mcguire et al would not have had one gripe with this. It is just the nuclear arms race thing, and they know the motive and operation at Windy Hill with Corcoran and team. Windy Hill merely showed how not to do plausible deniability, how not to do risk management, and how not to plan for unforeseen unknowns(pleonasm not double negative) as they should have with their risk management. In effect, Essendon's incompetency, has tightened other teams and players self governance and plausible deniability, and tightened the screws on overall risk management. In Essendon's defense, it was customs' interdiction of PIEDs that kicked the ball rolling and this momentum tallied Windy Hill in its wake. It p'raps could have been half a dozen other teams, and a few years either side of 2013, it prolly would have been a different team who suffered this fate. Not Essendon, but your team, or my team, or our team if you barrack for Richmond.
It is well established that hGH is a lipolytic hormone (15), but the exact mechanisms used are still unclear. In this paper we present data that suggest that hGH and its lipolytic fragment (AOD9604) induce their chronic in vivo actions on lipolysis in part by modulating the expression of theβ 3-AR. Human GH has been shown to affect the in vivo expression and function of β-ARs in vivo in sheep (16). Data presented in this paper indicate that chronic administration of hGH influences expression of the β3-AR in adipose tissue in the ob/ob mouse. In brown adipose tissue (BAT), these compounds also increase expression of β3-AR expression in the lean C57BL/6J mouse. The increase in expression induced by chronic hGH or AOD9604 treatment correlated with the decrease in adipose tissue mass. We therefore hypothesize that treatment with either hGH or AOD9604 enhances β3-AR expression, which has been observed in murine 3T3-F442A and human SK-N-MC cells in vitro (11).
On the message and discussion boards people reported mixed results. I recently found out that one of the biggest suppliers of Blue Top growth hormone, sold his vials dosed as 2-4-6-8 and 10 iu´s . Most people buy their peptides domestic, via online shops or "pharmacies" or via Chinese middle-men. And the fact that you pay for a 10 iu vial doesn´t mean that you get a 10 iu vial. And the fact that all the different peptides bear different colored tops and most of them just blue tops, doesn´t tell you anything about its content. Analyses often showed us surprising results. Just like it gave us laughs when someone mailed me that his " IGF-LR3" gave him erections and that he felt that he was tanning. “Do you think it’s real? “ Its therefore not surprising that not everyone is enthusiastic.
The four groups showed different gross morphological damage and histopathological changes in the cartilage of the lateral part of the femoral condyle (Figure 3). Complete disorganization of articular cartilage with apparent cloning of chondrocytes in the transitional and radial zones was evident in Group 1 (Figures 3-A,E,I). Abnormal gross morphological and histopathological changes such as fibrillated and irregular cartilage surfaces, disappearance of surface-layer cells, and slightly diffused cell growth in the transitional and radial zones were observed in Group 2 (Figures 3-B,F,J). Erosion of the articular cartilage, cleft, and cell cloning in the transitional and radial zones were noted in Group 3 (Figures 3-C,G,K). Softening of articular cartilage and surface irregularities were noted in Group 4 (Figures 3-D,H,L).
All studies were performed as double-blind placebo-controlled trials with specific design adaption depending on the question that was to be answered. All, but the first, were performed on obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. In the first 4 studies, only male subjects were included (supplementary data). Approximately 900 adult subjects participated in these 6 clinical trials.
I actually redid the math. There is 1,000,000 mcg in 1g. Needless to say I'm confused!! Ok sorry lol. There are 5000mcg per bottle. So a 200 pound man would need 9 bottles per day to see the results found in the study. The cost is $60.00 per bottle. So $540.00 per day for the effects realized in the study. I believe liposuction surgery is more cost effective!
An Australian-owned obesity drug, developed by Melbourne-based biotechnology company Metabolic Pharmaceuticals Limited, is set to enter final human trials next year after successfully completing a Phase 2b human trial which proved that the drug induces weight loss and is very well tolerated with no evidence of the side effects commonly experienced with existing obesity drugs.
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